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产品展示  
 设备 >> 氩、氩气、Argon、Argon
 
  
产品编号:
121582616
产品名称:
氩、氩气、Argon、Argon
规  格:
1
产品备注:
氩,氩气,氩气纯化,制氩、Argon, argon, argon purification system of argon,
产品类别:
设备
 
产品说明  

Argon,
 
  元素名称:氩
  元素读音:yà
  元素符号:Ar(Argon)
  元素原子量:39.95
  原子体积:(立方厘米/摩尔) 23.9
  元素在太阳中的含量:(ppm)  70
  元素在海水中的含量:(ppm) 0.45
  地壳中含量:(ppm)1.2
  元素类型:非金属元素
  质子数:18
  中子数:22
  原子序数:18
  所属周期:3
  所属族数:0
  电子层分布:2-8-8
  晶体结构:晶胞为面心立方晶胞。
  晶胞参数:
  a = 525.6 pm
  b = 525.6 pm
  c = 525.6 pm
  α = 90°
  β = 90°
  γ = 90°
  声音在其中的传播速率:(m/S)323
  电离能 (kJ/ mol)
  M - M+ 1520.4
  M+ - M2+ 2665.2
  M2+ - M3+ 3928
  M3+ - M4+ 5770
  M4+ - M5+ 7238
  M5+ - M6+ 8811
  M6+ - M7+ 12021
  M7+ - M8+ 13844
  M8+ - M9+ 40759
M9+ - M10+ 46186

同位素
同位素
丰度
半衰期
衰变
模式
衰变能量
MeV
衰变
产物
36Ar
0.336 %
稳定
38Ar
0.063 %
稳定
39Ar
人造
269年
β衰变
0.565
39K
40Ar
99.6 %
稳定
42Ar
人造
32.9年
β衰变
0.600
42K
 

氩稳定的同位素有氩-40(40Ar)天然含量99.6%、 氩-36(36Ar)天然含量0.34%和氩-38(38Ar)天然含量0.06%。一般来说稳定的氩-40是由地壳中的钾-40(40K)经由电子俘获或正子发射衰变来的。钾-40以这两种方式衰变成氩只占所有的11.2%,另外还有88.8%的氩经由钙-40(40Ca)的β衰变而来。这个特性可以被用来测定岩石的年龄。[12]
在地球大气中,不稳定的氩-39(39Ar)可经由宇宙射线轰击氩-40而生成,另外也可以经由钾-39(39K)的中子俘获而来。至于氩-37,则可以从(37Ar)核试验中形成的钙的人造同位素衰变而来,氩-37的寿命非常短,半衰期只有35天。
化合物
由于氩气拥有的八个价电子,占满了其原子轨道的最外层,因此不容易与其他的原子结合,化学性质非常不活泼。在1962年以前,一般认为氩和其他的惰性气体是完全无法与其他物质产生化学反应,但不久之后比氩重的氙和氪的化合物就陆续被合成,因此也激励了科学家发现新的稀有气体化合物。在2000年8月,第一个氩的化合物在芬兰的赫尔辛基大学由马库·拉萨能领导的小组首先被制备出来,他们利用紫外线照射含有微量氟化氢的氩气冰块,形成了氟氩化氢,分子式为HArF,这种化合物可以在40K(−233°C)的低温下保持稳定。[13] 另外在2003年发现了一种新氩化合物存在的踪迹,二氟化氩(ArF2),但目前还没有任何可靠的证据可以证实。
描述
其是单原子分子,单质为无色、无臭和无味的气体。是稀有气体中在空气中含量最多的一个,100升空气中约含有934毫升。密度1.784克/升。熔点-189.2℃。沸点-185.7度。电离能为15.759电子伏特。化学性极不活泼,按化合物这个词的一般意义来说,它是不会形成任何化合物的。氩不能燃烧,也不能助燃。
来源
目前在工业上得到氩的方法就是把空气蒸馏。用冷凝器可以先把沸点90.2K的氧液化,移除液氧之后继续冷却就可以液化沸点为87.3K的氩气,最后留下沸点77.35K的氮气。目前以这种方法制造的氩气在全世界高达七十万吨/年。
其他方法
另外用钾-40的衰变也可以制造氩气,但这种制备法的效率并不高,因为钾-40的半衰期长达1.26×109年,所以并不常用。如果要制造氩的放射性同位素的话,就必须要靠回旋加速器和重离子加速器来将其他元素转换成氩的同位素。
天然含量
氩在地球大气中的含量以体积计算为0.934%,而以质量计算为1.29%,至于在地壳中可说是完全不含氩,因为氩在自然情况下不与其他化合物反应,而无法形成固态物质。也因为这样工业用的氩大多就直接从空气中提取。主要是用分馏法提取,而像是氮、氧、氖、氪、氙等气体也都是这样从空气中提取的。 [10] 而在火星的大气中,氩-40以体积计算的话占有1.6%,而氩-36的浓度为5ppm;另外1973年水手号计划的太空探测器飞过水星时,发现它稀薄的大气中占有70%氩气,科学家相信这些氩气是从水星岩石本身的放射性同位素衰变而成的。卡西尼-惠更斯号在土星最大的卫星,也就是泰坦上,也发现少量的氩。
氩气纯化

工业氦族体主要杂质是氮、氧·水分·一氧化碳·二氧化碳·和烃类

1脱氮  脱氮时,有时伴着脱氧,用金属吸气剂吸收·金属吸气剂有钙、钛、铀和锆铝16.

  用金属钙做吸气剂,同时吸收氮和氧,反应温度650-680,出口杂质20-50       PPm

用钛,锆铝16可以同时吸收氧、氮、氢,水蒸气,一氧化碳,二氧化碳和烃

2 脱氧  用化学法脱氧,常用的脱氧剂有氧化锰和Ag-X分子筛

  用氧化锰吸收氧,工作温度150,氧脱除到2PPm

  常温用Ag-X分子筛脱氧, 氧脱除到3PPm

3 脱氢  脱除氢用氧化铜和Pd-X分子筛

  用氧化铜脱除氢·,反应温度350-400,氢气脱到0.1PPm

  Pd-X分子筛脱除氢·,反应温度350-400,氢气脱到1PPm

4 碳化物的脱除,

用金属剂锆铝16在脱碳的同时,一次性脱除一氧化碳,二氧化碳,和烃类.,可达1PPm

元素用途
  氩的最早用途是向电灯泡内充气。焊接和切割金属也使用大量的氩。用作电弧焊接不锈钢、镁、铝和其他合金的保护气体,即氩弧焊
氩气
氩气是一种无色、无味的惰性气体,分子量 39.938 ,分子式为 Ar ,在标准状态下,其密度为 1.784kg/m3。 其沸点为-185.7℃
用途
装有和汞蒸气的能霓虹灯。
这些桶子里装有氩气,可用于灭火。
因为氩气具有惰性、低传热率等性质,因此它被广泛地运用在许多方面。
氩气最主要的用处就是它的惰性,可以保护一些容易与周遭物质发生反应的东西。虽然其他的惰性气体也有这些特性,但是氩气在空气中的含量最多,也是最容易取得,因此相对就比较便宜,具有经济效益。另外氩气便宜的原因还有它是制造液氧和液氮的副产品,而由于它们两个都是工业上重要的原料,生产很多,所以每年都有很多的液氩副产品。
以氩惰性的用途主要有:
1. 电灯泡里的填充气体,由于氩气不会与灯芯产生化学反应,所以不会把灯芯烧毁。
2. 氩可当作焊接时所用的保护气体,其中包括MIG焊接、GTA焊接与GMA焊接等,在这时氩通常会和二氧化碳混合在一起使用。[15]
3. 可用于灭火,用氩气灭火的好处是几乎不会破坏任何火场的物品,通常使在火场有特殊仪器时才使用。
4. 是用于感应耦合等离子的气体之一。[16]
5. 用于保护加工中的钛和其他容易发生反应的金属。
6. 保护成长中的硅晶体和锗晶体,这晶体主要用于半导体学。
7. 在博物馆里,会在一些重要文物的玻璃专柜里填充氩气,避免氧化。[17]
8. 在啤酒罐中的填充物,虽然也可以用氮气代替。
9. 在酿酒的过程中,啤酒桶里的填充物,它可以把氧气置换,以避免啤酒桶里的原料被氧化成乙酸。
 

Argon

Element Name: Argon
Element pronunciation: yà
Symbol of element: Ar (Argon)
Elements of atomic weight: 39.95
:( Atomic volume cc / mol) 23.9
The content of elements in the sun: (ppm) 70
Content elements in seawater: (ppm) 0.45
Content of the crust: (ppm) 1.2
Element types: non-metallic elements
Number of protons: 18
The number of neutrons: 22
Atomic number: 18
Respective period: 3
Number of affiliated group: 0
Electron shell distribution: 2-8-8
Crystal structure: unit cell is face-centered cubic lattice.
Cell parameters:
a = 525.6 pm
b = 525.6 pm
c = 525.6 pm
α = 90 °
β = 90 °
γ = 90 °
Sound propagation speed in which: (m / S) 323
Ionization energy (kJ / mol)
M - M + 1520.4
M + - M2 + 2665.2
M2 + - M3 + 3928
M3 + - M4 + 5770
M4 + - M5 + 7238
M5 + - M6 + 8811
M6 + - M7 + 12021
M7 + - M8 + 13844
M8 + - M9 + 40759
M9 + - M10 + 46186
Isotope
Decay half-life of the isotope abundances
Energy decay mode
MeV decay
Product
36Ar 0.336% stable
38Ar 0.063% stable
39Ar artificial 269 β decay 0.565 39K
40Ar 99.6% stable
42Ar artificial 32.9 years β decay 0.600 42K
 
 


Stable isotope of argon argon -40 (40Ar) natural content of 99.6%, argon -36 (36Ar) natural content of 0.34% and argon -38 (38Ar) natural content of 0.06%. Generally stable argon -40 is captured by the earth's crust or potassium -40 (40K) via electron positron emission decay come. Potassium-40 to argon decays into two methods account for only 11.2% plus 88.8% argon from the decay of calcium through -40 (40Ca) of β. This feature can be used to determine the age of the rock. [12]
In the Earth's atmosphere, unstable argon -39 (39Ar) may argon bombardment -40 generated by cosmic rays, the other can also capture comes via K -39 (39K) neutrons. As for the artificial isotope of argon -37 can be formed from (37Ar) nuclear tests of calcium decay of argon-37 life expectancy is very short half-life of only 35 days.
Compound
Since argon has eight valence electrons, which occupy the outermost atomic orbits, it is not easy to combine with other atoms, chemically very inert. In 1962, it is generally believed that argon and other inert gases are completely unable to produce other chemical reactions, but soon after the ratio of the compound of argon heavy xenon and krypton succession are synthesized, and therefore encourage scientists to discover new rare gas compound. In August 2000, the first compound of argon at the University of Helsinki in Finland by Maku Lhasa, will lead the team out of the first to be prepared, they contain trace amounts of hydrogen fluoride by ultraviolet irradiation of argon ice, forming a hydrogen argon fluoride , the formula HArF, this compound can be kept stable at 40K (-233 ° C) Temperature. [13] also found that a new compound in the presence of traces of argon in 2003, two argon fluoride (ArF2), but there is no reliable evidence to support.
description:
Which is a single-atom molecule, simple substance is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. The rare gas is one of the largest content in the air, the air contains about 100 liters 934 ml. Density of 1.784 g / liter. Melting point -189.2 ℃. The boiling point of -185.7 degrees. Ionization energy 15.759 eV. Chemically extremely inert, compounds according to the general sense of the word, it will not form any compound. Argon does not burn, nor combustion.
source:
Currently argon obtained in an industrial process is to air distillation. 90.2K condenser can put boiling point of liquefied oxygen, after the removal of oxygen can be further cooled liquefied argon 87.3K boiling point, boiling point and finally left 77.35K nitrogen. Currently produced in this way in the world of argon up to 70 million tons / year.
Other methods
Further use of potassium-40 decays can also manufacture argon, but the efficiency of this method of preparation is not high, because the half-life of potassium-40 up 1.26 × 109 years, so it was not commonly used. If you want to manufacture radioactive isotopes of argon, then it must rely on the cyclotron and the heavy ion accelerator to convert other elements into argon isotopes.
Natural content
Argon content in the earth's atmosphere by volume calculated as 0.934 percent, while the quality is calculated as 1.29%, as in the earth's crust can be said to be completely free of argon because argon does not react with other compounds in natural circumstances, and can not form a solid substance. Because of this mostly for industrial use argon are extracted directly from the air. Mainly extracted by fractional distillation, and like nitrogen, oxygen, neon, krypton, xenon and other gases are also extracted from this air. [10] and in the atmosphere of Mars, argon -40 in terms of volume, then holds 1.6%, while the concentration of argon is -36 5ppm; additional 1973 Mariner program space probe flew Mercury and found it thin atmosphere It occupies 70% argon, argon scientists believe that these are the rock itself from Mercury radioisotopes from the decay. Cassini - Huygens at Saturn's largest moon, Titan is also found a small amount of argon.
Argon purification
Industrial helium congeners main impurities are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide · Water · · · monoxide and hydrocarbons

1 nitrogen and nitrogen, sometimes accompanied by oxygen, metal getter absorbing and metal getter calcium, titanium, uranium and zirconium aluminum 16.

  Do calcium metal getter, while the absorption of nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction temperature is 650-680 ℃, export impurity 20-50 PPm

Titanium, zirconium, aluminum 16 can absorb oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons

Deoxy-2-deoxy-chemical method, commonly used deoxidizer manganese oxide and Ag-X zeolite

  Manganese oxide absorbs oxygen, temperature 150 ℃, oxygen removal to 2PPm

  Ag-X zeolite at room temperature with oxygen, oxygen removal to 3PPm

3 dehydrogenation removal of hydrogen peroxide and copper Pd-X zeolite

  · Removal of hydrogen with copper oxide, the reaction temperature is 350-400 ℃, hydrogen off to 0.1PPm

  With Pd-X zeolite · removing hydrogen, the reaction temperature is 350-400 ℃, hydrogen off to 1PPm

4 carbide removal,

Aluminum zirconium metal 16 decarbonization agent, while a one-time removal of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons up to 1PPm

Elements Uses:
The earliest use of argon is blown up inside the bulb. Welding and cutting metals may also use a lot of argon. Used for arc welding of stainless steel, magnesium, aluminum and other alloys protective gas, namely welding
Argon
Argon is a colorless, odorless inert gas, the molecular weight of 39.938, the formula Ar, under standard conditions, having a density of 1.784kg / m3. Its boiling point -185.7 ℃
use
Containing argon and mercury vapor can be neon.
The yard is equipped tub argon, can be used for fire fighting.
Because the nature of the inert argon gas, low heat transfer rate, so it is widely used in many ways.
The main usefulness of argon is its inertness, can protect something likely to occur with the surrounding physical reactions. Although other inert gases have these features, but a maximum of argon in air content, the most readily available, so it is relatively inexpensive, has economic benefits. Also argon cheap reason it is also a byproduct of the manufacture of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen, and as an important raw material on both of them are industrial, production lot, so every year there are a lot of liquid argon by-product.
Inert argon purposes are:
1. in the gas-filled bulb, since argon does not produce a chemical reaction with the wick, so it will not burn the wick.
2. argon can be used as a protective gas used in welding, including MIG welding, GTA welding and GMA welding, at which point an argon and carbon dioxide are usually mixed together. [15]
3. Can be used for fire extinguishing, fire extinguishing with argon benefit is hardly any fire damage items, usually in the fire so that when there is a special instrument.
4. The gas used is one of the inductively coupled plasma. [16]
5. protection for metal machining titanium and other readily react.
6. Protect growing crystals of silicon and germanium crystals, which is mainly used in the semiconductor crystal learn.
7. In the museum, will be filled with argon gas in a number of important cultural relics in glass counter, to avoid oxidation. [17]
8. In the beer filler, although it could be replaced with nitrogen.
9. In the brewing process, the kegs in the filler, it can be replaced with oxygen, to avoid the kegs in the raw material is oxidized to acetic acid.

 


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