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产品展示  
 设备 >> 氧、氧气、Oxygen, oxygen
 
  
产品编号:
4221761416
产品名称:
氧、氧气、Oxygen, oxygen
规  格:
1
产品备注:
氧气Oxygen, oxygen
产品类别:
设备
 
产品说明  

氧,
 
元素名来源于希腊文,原意为“酸形成者”。1774年英国科学家普里斯特利用透镜把太阳光聚焦在氧化汞上,发现一种能强烈帮助燃烧的气体。拉瓦锡研究了此种气体,并正确解释了这种气体在燃烧中的作用。氧是地壳中最丰富、分布最广的元素,在地壳的含量为48.6%。单质氧在大气中占23%。氧有三种稳定同位素:氧16、氧17和氧18,其中氧16的含量最高。
基本解释
非金属气体化学元素,原子序数8,符号O。

元素信息

基本信息

【名称】氧
【序数】8
【符号】O
【原子量】15.9994
【晶体结构】简单立方晶胞【声音在其中的传播速率】330m/s
【原子体积】14.0(立方厘米/摩尔)
【质子数】8
【中子数】8
【核外电子数】8
【相对原子质量】16
【外围电子层排布】2s² 2p4
【电子层】K-L
【核外电子排布】2-6
【元素在太阳中的含量】9000ppm
【地壳中含量】474000(ppm)
【化合价】通常显-2价
【单质】O2,O3,O4,O5
氧化态
Main O-2
Other O-1, O0, O+1, O+2
化学键: (kJ /mol)
146 O-O
498 O=O
200 O-N
360 O-C
743 O=C
电离能(kJ/ mol)
M - M+ 1313.9
M+ - M2+ 3388.2
M2+ - M3+ 5300.3
M3+ - M4+ 7469.1
M4+ - M5+ 10989.3
M5+ - M6+ 13326.2
M6+ - M7+ 71333.3
M7+ - M8+ 84076.3
晶胞参数
a = 540.3 pm
= 342.9 pm
c = 508.6 pm
α = 90°
β = 132.530°
γ = 90°
热导率: W/(m·K)
26.58
元素类型:非金属

起源

氧元素是由英国化学家约瑟夫·普利斯特里与瑞典药剂师及化学家舍勒于1774年分别发现。但是普利斯特里却支持燃素学说。另有说法认为氧气首先由中国人马和首先发现。1777年,法国化学家拉瓦锡提出燃烧的氧化学说,指出物质只能在含氧的空气中进行燃烧,燃烧物重量的增加与空气中失去的氧相等,从而推翻了全部的燃素说,并正式确立质量守恒定律。从严格意义上讲,发现氧元素的为瑞典化学家舍勒,而确定氧元素化学性质的为法国化学家拉瓦锡。

名称

Oxygen,旧译作)是一种化学元素,其原子序数为8,相对原子质量为16.00。由符号“O”表示。在元素周期表中,氧是氧族元素的一员,它也是一个高反应性的第2周期非金属元素,很容易与几乎所有其它元素形成化合物(主要为氧化物)。在标准状况下,两个氧原子结合形成氧气,是一种无色无嗅无味的双原子气体,化学式为O2。如果按质量计算,氧在宇宙中的含量仅次于氢和氦,在地壳中,氧则是含量最丰富的元素。氧不仅占了水质量的89%,也占了空气体积的20.9%。
构成有机体的所有主要化合物都含有氧,包括蛋白质、碳水化合物和脂肪。构成动物壳、牙齿及骨骼的主要无机化合物也含有氧。由蓝藻、藻类和植物经过光合作用所产生的氧气化学式为O2,几乎所有复杂生物的细胞呼吸作用都需要用到氧气。动物中,除了极少数之外,皆无法终身脱离氧气生存。对于厌氧性生物来说,氧气是有毒的。这类生物曾经是早期地球上的主要生物,直到25亿年前O2开始在大气层中逐渐积累。氧元素的另一个同素异形体是臭氧。在高海拔形成的臭氧层能够隔离来自太阳的紫外线辐射。但是接近地表的臭氧则是一种污染,这些臭氧主要存在于光化学烟雾中。
氧气是由约瑟夫·普利斯特里和卡尔·威廉·舍勒独立发现的。虽然卡尔比约瑟夫早发现一年,但由于约瑟夫首先发表论文,所以很多人仍然认为是约瑟夫首先发现的。氧气的英文名是“Oxygen”,由拉瓦锡定名于1777年,拉瓦烯利用氧气所进行的试验在燃烧和腐蚀的方面打败了当时流行的燃素说。在工业上,氧气是通过分馏液态空气制备的,同时使用分子筛除去二氧化碳和氮气。也可以通过电解水等其他方式制备氧气。氧气的运用包括钢铁的冶炼、塑料和纺织品的制造以及作为火箭推进剂与进行氧气疗法,也用来在飞机、潜艇、太空船和潜水中维持生命。 氧旧译作(Oxygen)希腊文的意思是“酸素”,该名称是由法国化学家拉瓦锡所起,原因是拉瓦锡错误地认为,所有的酸都含有这种新气体。现在日文里氧气的名称仍然是“酸素”。而台语受到台湾日治时期的影响,也以“酸素”之日语发音称呼氧气。
氧气的中文名称是清朝徐寿命名的。他认为人的生存离不开氧气,所以就命名为“养气”即“养气之质”,后来为了统一就用“氧”代替了“养”字,便叫这“氧气”。

性质

氧气通常条件下是呈无色、无臭和无味的气体,密度1.429克/升,1.419克/立方厘米(液),1.426克/立方厘米(固),熔点-218.4℃,沸点-182.962℃,在-182.962℃时液化成淡蓝色液体,在-218.4℃时凝固成雪状淡蓝色。在元素周期表中属于ⅥA族元素固体在化合价一般为0和-2。电离能为13.618电子伏特。除惰性气体外的所有化学元素都能同氧形成化合物。大多数元素在含氧的气氛中加热时可生成氧化物。有许多元素可形成一种以上的氧化物。氧分子在低温下可形成水合晶体O2.H2O和O2.H2O2,后者较不稳定。氧气在空气中的溶解度是:4.89毫升/100毫升水(0℃),是水中生命体的基础。氧在地壳中丰度占第一位。干燥空气中含有20.946%体积的氧;水有88.81%重量的氧组成。除了O16外,还有O17和O18同位素。

物理性质

为无色气体;无臭,无味;有强助燃力。
在常压20℃时,能在乙醇7 容或水32容中溶解。
氧的单质形态有氧气(O₂)和臭氧(O3)。氧气在标准状况下是无色无味无臭,能帮助燃烧的双原子的气体。液氧呈淡蓝色,具有顺磁性。氧能跟氢化合成水。臭氧在标准状况下是一种有特殊臭味的蓝色气体。
新的氧单质(O4):O4是意大利的一位科学家合成的一种新型的氧分子,一个分子由四个氧原子构成。
振荡会发生爆炸,产生氧气:O4===振荡===2O2
它的氧化性比O2强的多.
在大气中含量极少
合成方法:
意大利科学家使用普通氧分子与带正电的氧离子作用,制造出o4
O4的能量密度比普通氧分子高
O4是一种比黄金还贵的气体,氧化性极强,可以与黄金反应。
是用普通氧分子和带正电的氧离子制造出含4个氧原子的氧分子。
这种氧分子可以稳定存在,预计构型为正四面体或者矩形,从两种构型中性分子O4,正一价分子O4+和负一价分子O4-的基态电子结构,并根据能量最低原则确定了各自的结构参数,从而得到了O4分子2种结构的基态总能量、一价电离能及电子亲合势能.与氧原子、普通氧分子O2和臭氧分子O3的计算结果比较,显示O4分子可以以正方形结构或正四面体结构形式存在,其中正方形结构更有可能是O4分子的真实空间结构。
化学性质
氧的非金属性和电负性仅次于氟,除了氦氖氩氪氟所有元素都能与氧起反应,这些反应称为氧化反应,而反应产生的化合物称为氧化物。一般而言,绝大多数非金属氧化物的水溶液呈酸性,而碱金属或碱土金属氧化物则为碱性。此外,几乎所有的有机化合物,可在氧中剧烈燃烧生二氧化碳与水蒸气。
氧的化合价:氧的化合价很特殊一般为-2价和0价。而氧在过氧化物中通常为-1价。在超氧化物中为-1/2,臭氧化物中氧为-1/3,超氧化物中氧的化合价只能说是超氧根离子,不能单独的看每个原子,因为电子是量子化的,不存在1/2个电子,自然化合价也就没有0.5的说法,臭氧化物也一样。而氧的正价很少出现,只有在和氟的化合物二氟化氧,二氟化二氧和六氟合铂酸二氧(O2PtF6)中显示+2价、+1价和+1/2,在中学化学中只要记住氧和氟是没有正价就可以了。
实验证明,除黄金外的所有金属都能和氧发生反应生成金属氧化物,比如铂在高温下在纯氧中被氧化生成二氧化铂,黄金一般认为不能和氧发生反应,但是有三氧化二金和氢氧化金等化合物,其中金为+3价;氧气不能和氯,溴,碘发生反应,但是臭氧可以氧化它们。

历史简介

在1608年,Cornelius Drebbel证明了加热硝石(硝酸钾,KNO3)能释放气体。这就是氧气,然而并没有对它进行鉴定。
因发现氧而获得的荣誉现在由3位化学家分享:一个英国人,一个瑞典人,还有一个法国人。Joseph Priestley是第一位发布氧元素声明的人,在1774年由聚焦阳光到氧化汞(HgO),然后收集释放出的气体实现。他注意到蜡烛在这里燃烧的更明亮了,而且能使呼吸变得更简单。Priestley不知道的是,Carl Wilhelm Scheele在1771年6月就制取了氧。他写下了他的发现说明,但直到1777年才发布。Antoine Lavoisier也声称发现了氧,并且他提议这种新的气体叫做oxy-gène(氧基因),意思是形成酸的,因为他认为这种元素是所有酸性物质的基础。

主要用途

氧被大量用于熔炼、精炼、焊接、切割,动植物呼吸和表面处理等冶金过程中;液体氧是一种制冷剂,也是高能燃料氧化剂。它和锯屑、煤粉的混合物叫液氧炸药,是一种比较好的爆炸材料,氧与水蒸气相混,可用来代替空气吹入煤气气化炉内,能得到较高热值的煤气。液体氧也可作火箭推进剂;氧气是
许多生物过程的基本成分,因此氧也就成了担负空间任何任务是需要大量装载的必需品之一。医疗上用氧气疗法,医治肺炎、煤气中毒等缺氧症。石料和玻璃产品的开采、生产和创造均需要大量的氧。

鉴别方法

本品能使带火星木条复燃。

检查

酸碱度 取甲基红指示液与溴麝香草酚蓝指示液各0.3ml,加水400ml ,煮沸5 分钟,放冷,分取各100ml,置甲、乙、丙3 支比色管中,乙管中加盐酸滴定液(0.01mol/L )0.20ml,丙管中加盐酸液(0.01mol/L)0.40ml;再在乙管中通本品2000ml(速度为每小时4000ml),乙管显出的颜色不得较丙管的红色或甲管的绿色更深。
一氧化碳 取甲、乙2 支比色管,分别加微温的氨制硝酸银试液25ml,甲管中通本品1000ml(速度为每小时4000ml)后,与乙管比较,应同样澄清无色。
二氧化碳 取甲、乙2 支比色管,分别加5%氢氧化钡溶液100ml ,乙管中加0.04%碳酸氢钠溶液1.0ml ,甲管中通本品1000ml(速度为每小时4000ml)后,所显浑浊与乙管比较,不得更浓(0.01%)。
其他气态氧化物质 取新制的碘化钾淀粉溶液(取碘化钾0.5g,加淀粉指示液100ml溶解,即得)100ml ,置比色管中,加醋酸1 滴,通本品2000ml(速度为每小时4000ml)后,溶液应无色。

含量测定

仪器装置 如图:A、C为总容量约300ml 的吸收器,B为适宜的塞子,D、E及I为细玻璃导管,F为刻度精密至0.1ml 、容量为100ml 的量气管主体,G为三通活塞,H为气体进出口,J为平衡瓶。临用前用橡胶管将吸收器与量气管连接,后者再与平衡瓶连接。
测定法 先将铜丝节(取直径约0.8mm 的紫铜丝缠成直径约4mm 的铜丝卷并剪成长约10mm的小节)装满于吸收器A中,用塞B塞紧,再将氨-氯化铵溶液(取氯化铵150g,加水200ml ,随搅随小心加浓氨溶液200ml ,混匀)导入,使充满A并部分留于C中,再将饱和氯化钠溶液注入平衡瓶J中,提高平衡瓶,使饱和氯化钠溶液充满F,多余溶液由H流出,转动G接通量气管与吸收器,下降平衡瓶使吸收器中的溶液全部充满导管D、E、I和活塞G的入口,立即关闭活塞,如有气体和部分氨-氯化铵溶液进入量气管时,可提高平衡瓶转动活塞,使由H排出。
将供试品钢瓶接上减压阀(专供氧气用),后者出口接上橡胶管,小心微开钢瓶气阀,再开减压阀使氧气喷放1 分钟后,调整至较弱的气流。将橡胶管另一端连接在气体进出口H上,俟量气管装满本品后,关闭G并立即拆去气体进出口H上的橡胶管,静置数分钟,转动G接通气体进出口H,将平衡瓶徐徐升降(为防止吸入外界空气,应注意使平衡瓶内的液面略高于量气管内的液面),使量气管内的液面恰达刻度100ml 处。转动G接通量气管与吸收器,举起平衡瓶使供试品进入吸收器A中,当饱和氯化钠溶液流经导管I并充满导管D时,关闭G并将吸收器A小心充分振摇5 ~10分钟,俟气体被吸收近完毕时(所剩者为氮或其他不被吸收的气体),转动G接通量气管与吸收器,降低平衡瓶,将剩余气体由吸收器转入量气管中,当氨-氯化铵溶液充满吸收器A并经导管D、E与I通过活塞G时,关闭活塞。
约5 分钟后,调节平衡瓶的液面使量气管内的气体压力与大气压力一致,读出量气管内的液面刻度,算出供试品的含量。
为了检查氧是否完全被吸收,应重复上述操作,自“转动G接通量气管与吸收器,举起平衡瓶”起,依法操作,至剩余的气体体积恒定为止(二次差不大于0.05ml)。
检查或测定前,应先将供试品钢瓶在试验室温度下放置6 小时以上。
贮藏
置耐压蓝色钢瓶内,在30℃以下保存。

详细参数

氧的同位素已知的有十七种,包括氧-12至氧-28,其中氧-16、氧-17和氧-18三种属于稳定型,其他已知的同位素都带有放射性,其半衰期全部均少于三分钟。利用医用回旋加速器产生的质子,轰击重氧水之中的氧-18,通过(p,n)核反应,从而获得可以发射正电子的放射性同位素氟-18离子,用于合成正电子发射计算机断层扫描检查所需的示踪剂氟代脱氧葡萄糖。
符号
质子
中子
质量(u)
半衰期
原子核自旋
相对丰度
相对丰度的变化量
12O
8
4
12.034405(20)
580(30)E-24 s [0.40(25) MeV]
0+
 
 
13O
8
5
13.024812(10)
8.58(5) ms
(3/2-)
 
 
14O
8
6
14.00859625(12)
70.598(18) s
0+
 
 
15O
8
7
15.0030656(5)
122.24(16) s
1/2-
 
 
16O
8
8
15.99491461956(16)
稳定
0+
0.99757(16)
0.99738-0.99776
17O
8
9
16.99913170(12)
稳定
5/2+
0.00038(1)
0.00037-0.00040
18O
8
10
17.9991610(7)
稳定
0+
0.00205(14)
0.00188-0.00222
19O
8
11
19.003580(3)
26.464(9) s
5/2+
 
 
20O
8
12
20.0040767(12)
13.51(5) s
0+
 
 
21O
8
13
21.008656(13)
3.42(10) s
(1/2,3/2,5/2)+
 
 
22O
8
14
22.00997(6)
2.25(15) s
0+
 
 
23O
8
15
23.01569(13)
82(37) ms
1/2+#
 
 
24O
8
16
24.02047(25)
65(5) ms
0+
 
 
25O
8
17
25.02946(28)#
<50 ns
(3/2+)#
 
 
26O
8
18
26.03834(28)#
<40 ns
0+
 
 
27O
8
19
27.04826(54)#
<260 ns
3/2+#
 
 
28O
8
20
28.05781(64)#
<100 ns
0+
 
 

分布情况

氧元素占整个地壳质量的48.6%是地壳中含量最多的元素,它在地壳中基本上是以氧化物的形式存在的。每一千克的海水中溶解有2.8毫克的氧气,而海水中的氧元素差不多达到了88%.就整个地球而言,氧的质量分数为15.2%。无论是人、动物还是植物,他们的生物细胞都有类似的组成,其中氧元素占到了65%的质量。

中毒类型

“氧中毒”一般发生在长期吸氧的病人中。尽管适当吸氧能提高人体细胞新陈代谢能力、增强人体免疫力,但长期吸入高浓度氧气也会发生肺泡表面活性物质减少,引发肺泡内渗液,出现肺水肿,出现头昏、面色苍白、心跳加快等诸多问题。更为严重的是,氧中毒当时不容易被觉察,往往在2-3天后才会发生临床症状,此时再进行抢救往往容易贻误时间。一些家庭用氧者往往不注意吸入氧气的浓度和时间,认为氧浓度越高越好,吸氧的时间越长越好。这就增大了氧中毒的危险性。
肺型氧中毒
1、症状
类似支气管肺炎。其表现及通常的发展过程为:最初为类似上呼吸道感染引起的气管刺激症状,如胸骨后不适(刺激或烧灼感)伴轻度干咳,并缓慢加重;然后出现胸骨后疼痛,且疼痛逐渐沿支气管树向整个胸部蔓延,吸气时为甚;疼痛逐渐加剧,出现不可控制的咳嗽;休息时也伴有呼吸困难。在症状出现的早期阶段结束暴露,胸疼和咳嗽可在数小时内减轻。
2、体征
肺部听诊,常没有明显的阳性体征;后期症状严重时,可以出现散在的湿罗音或支气管
呼吸音。氧压越高,这些症状和体征的潜伏期越短。
3、实验室检查:  
⑴ X线检查:可发现肺纹理增粗,或肺部片状阴影。
⑵ 肺活量测定:肺活量减少是肺型氧中毒最灵敏的指标。
惊厥型氧中毒:惊厥型氧中毒的表现,大体上可分为连续的四个阶段:
⑴ 潜伏期:潜伏期长短与吸入气中的氧压呈负相关,但并不呈线性。氧压增高,潜伏期缩短。
⑵ 前驱期:表现包括:① 面部肌肉抽搐,最常见,主要为面肌及口唇颤动;②植物神经症状:有出汗、流涎、恶心、呕吐、眩晕、心悸和面色苍白等;③感觉异常:可有视野缩小、幻视、幻听、幻嗅、口腔异味和肢端发麻等;④情绪异常:烦躁、忧虑或欣快等;⑤ 前驱期末期可出现极度疲劳和呼吸困难,少数情况下可能有虚脱发生。及时发现前驱症状并立即采取措施,脱离高压氧环境,对于预防氧惊厥的发生非常重要。需要注意的是,具体患者往往只出现一项或几项前驱期症状,有时甚至无明显前驱症状直接出现惊厥。
⑶ 惊厥期:前驱期后,很快出现惊厥。①癫痫大发作样全身强直或阵发性痉挛,每次持续2 min左右;②在人,发作前有时会发出一声短促的尖叫,神志丧失,有时伴有大小便失禁;③脑电图变化:出现于惊厥发生前,电压升高和频率加快,出现棘状波和梭状波(spindle-like waves)。
⑷ 昏迷期:如果在发生惊厥后仍处于高氧环境,即进入昏迷期。实验动物表现为昏迷不醒,偶尔局部有轻微抽搐,呼吸困难逐渐加重,再继续下去则呼吸微弱直至停止。人员在惊厥过后即使及时脱离高压氧环境,也有一段时间意识模糊或精神和行为障碍,一般在1~2h后即可恢复,少数可熟睡数小时。不留明显后遗症。
发病机理
目前仍未完全明了。主要有以下几个观点:
⑴ 高压氧对组织、器官的直接毒性作用。当我们找不更具体确切的损伤机理时,暂时考虑是氧的直接毒性作用。
⑵ 生物膜受损 在高压氧条件下,肺泡壁的分泌细胞(Ⅱ型细胞)内板层小体的膜受损,肺表面活性物质的合成、分泌及功能均下降,造成肺表面张力增加,导致肺不张。
⑶ 有关酶受抑制 高压氧下许多酶的活性受抑制如谷氨酸脱羧酶和 Na+-K+-ATP酶。
⑷ 氧自由基的作用 氧自由基是一类具有高度化学反应活性的含氧基团。正常时,机体内产生的氧自由基主要由体内的抗氧化系统清除。机体暴露于高压氧下,产生过多的氧自由基,且大大超过机体抗氧化系统清除的能力。氧自由基主要造成以下两方面的损伤:1。生物膜脂质过氧化;2.破坏蛋白质的多肽链:酶都是蛋白质,其活性受影响。自由基学说能在分子水平上解释氧中毒的许多现象。
⑸ 神经-体液因素 
⑹ 脑内的某些肽类物质的作用 如b内啡肽和精氨酸加压素。
发病原因
简单地说,发病原因就是吸入了过多的氧,而高压氧暴露的压力和时程是引起氧中毒的两个主要因素。
1 潜水中呼吸高分压氧
⑴ 使用氧气轻潜水装具潜水时,超过规定深度
⑵ 使用空气通风式潜水装具潜水时,在水下停留时间过长
⑶ 用氦氧装具进行较大深度潜水时,如果没有按规定配制相应氧浓度的混合气,或误将较浅处吸用的气体在深处使用。
2 加压舱内呼吸高压氧:超过规定的压力-时间限制。
影响因素
⑴ 个体差异与个体日差异:不同的个体对高浓度氧的敏感性差别很大。即使同一个体,其对氧的耐受力在不同状态下有很大波动。
⑵ CO2 :增加吸入气中CO2浓度促进氧惊厥。
⑶ 劳动强度:劳动强度加大促使氧中毒的发生。
⑷ 温度:高温可降低机体对高压氧的耐受性。低温在一定程度上可增加耐受性,但若太低引起肌肉颤抖,消耗的能量增多,则耐受性也将降低。
⑸ 精神因素:情绪波动、精神紧张、睡眠不足等都能降低机体对高压氧的耐受性。
潜水时发生氧中毒的救治
⑴ 迅速离开高气压环境:出现前驱症状时立即上升出水,已惊厥时则应及时派潜水员下水救护,但要控制好上升速度(< 10 m/min),以防止肺气压伤。
⑵ 出水后救治:卸除装具,平卧休息,保持安静,注意保暖,继续观察,防突发惊厥。
⑶ 抗惊厥治疗:对出现惊厥者用药,应选择对心肺功能影响较小的药物,可用4%水合氯醛50ml灌肠,2 h后皮下注射吗啡,可反复应用,每天不超过4次。也可肌肉或静脉注射0.2~0.3 g异戊巴比妥。因氧惊厥常伴有一定程度的肺脏损伤,禁用吸入性麻醉药。
加压舱内发生氧中毒的救治
⑴ 在通过面罩吸氧的舱内,迅速摘除面罩,呼吸舱内压缩空气,并按空气常规减压。
⑵ 在纯氧舱内,先用压缩空气进行通风,降低舱内氧分压,然后逐渐减压出舱。
⑶ 出现惊厥时,应注意以下几点:
① 防止跌倒摔伤或舌被咬破,必要时可适当使用止痉剂。
② 应注意患者呼吸状况,惊厥时容易发生喉头痉挛而屏气,此时不能减压,以防声门关闭造成肺气压伤。只有待节律性呼吸恢复,呼吸道通畅后,才可按规定减压。
③ 离开高压氧环境,仍有惊厥者,进行抗惊厥治疗。

对肺型氧中毒,轻者,回到正常环境后数小时即可恢复;重者,作肺部透视监测,数日可恢复。

oxygen,
Element name comes from the Greek, meaning "acid-formers." 1774 British scientists Priest with a lens to focus sunlight on mercuric oxide, discovered a strongly help the combustion gases. Lavoisier studied this gas, and the correct interpretation of the role of this gas in the combustion. Oxygen is the most abundant in the earth's crust, the most widely distributed elements in the crust of the content of 48.6%. 23% of elemental oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen has three stable isotopes: oxygen-16, oxygen-17 and oxygen-18, the highest oxygen content of 16.
Basic interpretation
Non-metallic gas chemical element, atomic number 8, the symbol O.
Element Information
Basic Information
[Name] oxy
[8] Order Number
[Symbol] O
[Atomic] 15.9994
[Simple cubic lattice crystal structure] [sound propagation speed] 330m / s
[14.0] atomic volume (cc / mol)
[8] the number of protons
Number of neutrons [8]
[8] the number of extranuclear
Relative atomic mass [16]
[Peripheral] 2s² 2p4 electron shell arrangement
[Shells] K-L
[2-6] arrangement extranuclear
[In the sun] element content 9000ppm
[Content] crust 474000 (ppm)
[Valence] was usually the -2
[Elemental] O2, O3, O4, O5
Oxidation states:
Main O-2
Other O-1, O0, O + 1, O + 2
Bond energy: (kJ / mol)
146 O-O
498 O = O
200 O-N
360 O-C
743 O = C
Ionization energy (kJ / mol)
M - M + 1313.9
M + - M2 + 3388.2
M2 + - M3 + 5300.3
M3 + - M4 + 7469.1
M4 + - M5 + 10989.3
M5 + - M6 + 13326.2
M6 + - M7 + 71333.3
M7 + - M8 + 84076.3
Cell parameters:
a = 540.3 pm
= 342.9 pm
c = 508.6 pm
α = 90 °
β = 132.530 °
γ = 90 °
Thermal conductivity: W / (m · K)
26.58
Element types: non-metallic
Origin
Oxygen by the English chemist Joseph Priestley and Scheele Sweden pharmacists and chemists in 1774 were found. But Priest actually support phlogiston theory. Another theory is that oxygen first by Chinese troops and was first discovered. In 1777, French chemist Lavoisier proposed oxidative combustion theory, pointing out substances can only be burned in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to increase the weight of the combustion air in the loss of oxygen equal overturned the whole of phlogiston, and the formal establishment of conservation of mass. Strictly speaking, oxygen is found Swedish chemist Scheler, and determine the chemical properties of oxygen for the French chemist Lavoisier.
Name
Oxygen (Oxygen, old translated Yang) is a chemical element whose atomic number is 8, the relative atomic mass of 16.00. By the symbol "O" indicates. In the periodic table, oxygen is a chalcogen, it is also a high reactivity of the second cycle of non-metallic elements, easily with almost all other elements to form compounds (primarily oxides). Under standard conditions, two oxygen atoms combine to form oxygen, it is a colorless, odorless and tasteless diatomic gases, chemical formula O2. If calculated according to the quality of the oxygen content in the universe after hydrogen and helium in the Earth's crust, oxygen is the most abundant element. Oxygen accounts for only 89% of the mass of water, also accounted for 20.9% of the volume of air.
All major compound contains oxygen constituting the organism, including proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Constitute animal shells, teeth and bones are mainly inorganic compounds containing oxygen. By the cyanobacteria, algae and plants through photosynthesis to produce oxygen chemical formula O2, almost all of the complex cellular respiration organisms require the use of oxygen. Animals, except a very few, are unable to survive for life out of oxygen. For anaerobic organisms, oxygen is toxic. Such was the main biological organism on the early Earth, until 2.5 billion years ago, O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere. Another allotrope of oxygen is ozone. The formation of ozone at high altitudes can isolate UV radiation from the sun. But the near-surface ozone is a form of pollution, mainly in the ozone photochemical smog.
Oxygen is by Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele found independently. Although early detection 卡尔比约瑟夫 year, but due to Joseph first published, many people still believe that Joseph first discovered. Oxygen English name is "Oxygen", named by the Lavoisier in 1777, Calatrava ene oxygen use test carried out in terms of combustion and corrosion defeated the then popular phlogiston. In industry, the oxygen is prepared by fractional distillation of liquid air, while using a molecular sieve to remove carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Oxygen can also be prepared by other means such as water electrolysis. The use of oxygen includes steel smelting, plastics and textiles as well as a rocket propellant manufacturing and subjected to oxygen therapy, also used in aircraft, submarines, spacecraft and dive sustain life. Old Yang translated oxygen (Oxygen) in Greek means "Sanso," the name is played by the French chemist Lavoisier, because Lavoisier mistakenly believed that all acids contain this new gas. Now Japanese name in oxygen is still "Sanso." The Taiwanese affected Taiwan under Japanese rule, but also to "Sanso" in Japanese pronunciation called oxygen.
Oxygen Chinese name is Xu Shou Qing Dynasty named. He believes that human existence can not do without oxygen, so named for the "Keeping the Spirit" or "raise gas quality", then in order to unify it with the "oxygen" instead of "support" word, which he called "Oxygen."
Nature
Under normal conditions oxygen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, density of 1.429 g / l, 1.419 g / cc (liquid), 1.426 grams / cubic centimeter (solid), melting point -218.4 ℃, boiling point -182.962 ℃, in -182.962 ℃ liquefied into a pale blue liquid, solidified into snow-like light blue when at -218.4 ℃. In the periodic table of elements belonging to Group ⅥA solid valence usually 0 and -2. Ionization energy 13.618 eV. All chemical elements other inert gas can be formed outside the compound with oxygen. Oxides can generate most of the elements is heated in an oxygen atmosphere. Many elements can form more than one oxide. Oxygen molecules at low temperatures and can form a hydrated crystal O2.H2O O2.H2O2, the latter more unstable. The solubility of oxygen in the air is: 4.89 ml / 100 ml water (0 ℃), water is the basis of the living body. Oxygen in the earth's crust abundance accounted for first. 20.946% by volume of oxygen contained in the dry air; water has a composition of 88.81% by weight of oxygen. In addition to O16, there O17 and O18 isotopes.
Physical properties
It is a colorless gas; odorless, tasteless; there is a strong oxidizing power.
When atmospheric pressure 20 ℃, can be dissolved in ethanol 7 content or water content of 32.
Oxygen elemental form of oxygen (O₂) and ozone (O3). Oxygen under standard conditions is a colorless, tasteless and odorless, can help burn diatomic gases. Pale blue liquid oxygen, paramagnetic. Oxygen sorted hydrogenated synthetic water. Ozone under standard conditions is a special smell of blue gas.
The new elemental oxygen (O4): O4 is a new type of oxygen molecule an Italian scientist synthesized a molecule consisting of four oxygen atoms.
Oscillation will explode, generate oxygen: O4 === === 2O2 oscillation
It oxidizing stronger than O2.
In amounts in the atmosphere
resolve resolution:
Italian scientists using ordinary oxygen molecules and oxygen ions are positively charged, to create a o4
O4 higher energy density than ordinary oxygen molecules
O4 gold is a more expensive than gas, highly oxidized, can react with gold.
With ordinary oxygen molecules and oxygen to produce positively charged ions of oxygen molecules containing four oxygen atoms.
Such oxygen molecules can be stable, it is expected to be positive tetrahedral configuration or rectangular, from two configurations of neutral molecules O4, being a monovalent molecule O4 + and the ground state electronic structure of molecules O4- negative monovalent, and according to the principle of minimum energy determine their structural parameters, thereby obtaining O4 molecule two kinds of the ground state of the total energy of the structure, a valence ionization energy and electron affinity potential., the results of ordinary oxygen molecules O2 and ozone molecule O3 compared with the oxygen atom display O4 molecules may form a square structure or tetrahedron structure exists, which is more likely to be true square structure spatial structure O4 molecules.
Chemical Properties
Non-metallic and electrically negative after fluorine oxygen, argon, krypton, neon, helium in addition to all the elements fluorine can react with oxygen, these reactions called oxidation reaction, and a compound produced by the reaction known as oxides. In general, the vast majority of non-metallic oxide solution acidic, and alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxide compared. In addition, almost all organic compounds can burn fiercely in oxygen and carbon dioxide is water vapor.
Valence of oxygen: oxygen valence is very special and is generally 0 to -2 valence valence. The oxygen peroxide is usually -1 price. In superoxide as -1/2, -1/3 foul oxide oxygen, superoxide oxygen valence can only say that superoxide ion, we can not look at every single atom, because the electron is quantized , there is no 1/2 electrons, valence naturally there will be no argument 0.5, ozonide, too. The regular price of oxygen is rare, and only two oxygen fluorine compound fluoride, bifluoride dioxide and acid dioxide platinum hexafluoride (O2PtF6) displayed +2, +1 and +1/2 price in high school chemistry just remember that there is no oxygen and fluorine-price on it.
Experimental results show that all metals except gold outside of the can and oxygen react to form a metal oxide, such as platinum is oxidized at high temperatures generated platinum dioxide in pure oxygen, gold is generally believed that reaction does not occur and oxygen, but Gold (III) oxide and compounds such as gold hydroxide, wherein the trivalent metal; and oxygen can not be chlorine, bromine, iodine reaction, but the ozone can oxidize them.
Brief History
In 1608, Cornelius Drebbel proved heating saltpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO3) can release the gas. This is the oxygen, but it did not identify.
Honor for his discovery of oxygen obtained by the three chemists now share: a Briton, a Swede and a Frenchman. Joseph Priestley was the first release oxygen element declaration person, in 1774 by the focus sunlight to mercuric oxide (HgO), and then collect the released gas to achieve. He noted that the candle burning brighter here, and it can make breathing easier. Priestley did not know was, Carl Wilhelm Scheele in June 1771 on the preparation of the oxygen. He wrote his findings suggest, but until 1777 was released. Antoine Lavoisier also claimed to have discovered oxygen, and he proposed that this new gas, called oxy-gène (oxy gene), which means the formation of acids, because he believed that this element is the basis of all of the acidic substance.
The main purpose
Oxygen is used extensively for smelting, refining, welding, cutting, and surface treatment of animals and plants breathe metallurgical process; a refrigerant liquid oxygen, but also high-energy fuel oxidizer. It sawdust, coal mixture called liquid oxygen explosives, is a good explosive material, oxygen and water vapor is mixed, can be used instead of air blown into the gasifier gas, gas to get high calorific value. Liquid oxygen can also make rocket propellant; oxygen is
Many of the basic components of biological processes, and therefore oxygen will become responsible for one of the necessities of any task requires a lot of space is loaded. With medical oxygen therapy, treatment of pneumonia, gas poisoning anoxia. Stone and glass products exploration, production and creation require a lot of oxygen.
Authentication method
This product enables the belt between Mars wood resurgence.
an examination
Methyl red indicator solution pH to take with each bromothymol blue indicator solution 0.3ml, add water 400ml, boil 5 minutes, let cool, get each 100ml, set A, B, C three colorimetric tube, tube B hydrochloric acid titration solution (0.01mol / L) 0.20ml, propionic acid salt tube (0.01mol / L) 0.40ml; then in acetic tube through the product 2000ml (rate per hour 4000ml), B show a tube color can not be compared with prop darker green or red armor tube tube.
Carbon monoxide take A, B two colorimetric tubes, each with lukewarm ammonia system silver nitrate test solution 25ml, A tube through the product 1000ml (rate per hour 4000ml), the comparison with the tube B, should be equally clear and colorless.
Carbon dioxide take A, B two colorimetric tubes, each with 5% barium hydroxide solution 100ml, tube B was added 0.04% sodium bicarbonate solution 1.0ml, A tube through the product 1000ml (rate per hour 4000ml), the B turbid tube compared to the display, not thicker (0.01%).
Other gaseous oxidation material to take fresh potassium iodide starch solution (potassium iodide 0.5g, add starch indicator solution 100ml dissolve, that is, too) 100ml, set colorimetric tube, add 1 drop of acetic acid, through the product 2000ml (rate per hour 4000ml) , the solution should be colorless.
Determination
FIG Instrument: A, C is the total capacity of about 300ml absorber, B is a suitable plug, D, E and I as a fine glass catheter, F is to scale precision 0.1ml, 100ml capacity is the amount of the main pipe, G for the three-way cock, H gas import and export, J balanced bottle. Before use with a rubber tube connected to the amount of the absorber pipe, which is then connected to the balance bottle.
First assay section of copper wire (diameter of about 0.8mm to take the copper wire wrapped copper wire having a diameter of about 4mm long roll and cut into sections of 10mm) filled in the absorber A, B plugged with a plug, then ammonia - ammonium chloride solution (take ammonium chloride 150g, add water 200ml, carefully add with mixing with concentrated ammonia solution 200ml, mix) to import, so full of A and C in the left part, and then saturated sodium chloride solution was injected balance bottle J, the increase in equilibrium bottle filled with saturated sodium chloride solution to make F., excess solution flowing out from the H, the amount of rotation of the trachea and G is turned absorber, the absorbent is decreased equilibrium bottle was filled with all the conduits D, E, I, and pistons G entrance, immediately close the piston, and if part of the ammonia gas - the amount of ammonium chloride solution into the trachea, it can improve the balance bottle rotation of the piston, the discharge from the H.
The cylinders connected to the test valve (designed for oxygen use), which is connected to a rubber tube outlet, carefully ajar cylinder valve, and then open the valve so that the discharge of oxygen for 1 minute, adjusted to weaker airflow. After the rubber tube and the other end is connected to the H gas import and export, as soon as the amount of pipe filled with the product, immediately turn off G and remove the rubber hose H on the import and export gas and allowed to stand for several minutes, turn the gas G ON H & Exports the balance bottle slowly lift (to prevent inhalation of ambient air, should pay attention to the balance bottle level slightly higher than the amount of liquid inside the trachea), so that the amount of liquid endotracheal Qiada scale 100ml place. G ON amount of rotation and the absorber pipe, lift the bottle so that the balance of the test into the absorber A, when a saturated sodium chloride solution through the catheter and I filled conduit D, G and closed fully vibration absorber A CAUTION shake 5 to 10 minutes, as soon as the gas is absorbed when the near complete (remaining nitrogen or other gases are not absorbed), the amount of rotation of the trachea and G is turned absorber, for reducing the equilibrium bottles, the residual gas transferred from the absorber the amount of the trachea, when the ammonia - ammonium chloride solution and filled the absorber A through conduit D, E and G when I through the piston, the piston closed.
After about 5 minutes, adjust the balance of the gas bottle level atmospheric pressure and the amount of endotracheal consistent pressure reading level scale the amount of endotracheal calculated for the content of the test sample.
In order to check whether the oxygen is completely absorbed, repeat the above operation, since the "amount of rotation G turned trachea and the absorber, lift balance bottle" since, according to operations, to the rest of the gas volume constant until the (second-order difference of not more than 0.05ml ).
Before checking or measuring, the test should be first cylinder at laboratory temperature for 6 hours or more.
Storage
Blue cylinder pressure built, stored below 30 ℃.
specification
Isotopes of oxygen known seventeen species, including oxygen oxygen -12 to -28, wherein the oxygen -16, oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 belong to three kinds of stable, other known isotopes are radioactive half-life all of which are less than three minutes. Medical cyclotron produced proton bombardment of heavy oxygen water into oxygen-18, through the (p, n) nuclear reaction, which can obtain a positron-emitting radioisotope fluorine-18 ion, for the synthesis of positron emission tomography check the required tracer FDG.
Symbol neutron proton mass (u) the amount of change in the relative abundance of half-life nuclear spin relative abundance
12O 8 4 12.034405 (20) 580 (30) E-24 s [0.40 (25) MeV] 0+
13O 8 5 13.024812 (10) 8.58 (5) ms (3 / 2-)
14O 8 6 14.00859625 (12) 70.598 (18) s 0+
15O 8 7 15.0030656 (5) 122.24 (16) s 1 / 2-
16O 8 8 15.99491461956 (16) stabilized 0+ 0.99757 (16) 0.99738-0.99776
17O 8 9 16.99913170 (12) stabilized 5/2 + 0.00038 (1) 0.00037-0.00040
18O 8 10 17.9991610 (7) stable 0+ 0.00205 (14) 0.00188-0.00222
19O 8 11 19.003580 (3) 26.464 (9) s 5/2 +
20O 8 12 20.0040767 (12) 13.51 (5) s 0+
21O 8 13 21.008656 (13) 3.42 (10) s (1 / 2,3 / 2,5 / 2) +
22O 8 14 22.00997 (6) 2.25 (15) s 0+
23O 8 15 23.01569 (13) 82 (37) ms 1/2 + #
24O 8 16 24.02047 (25) 65 (5) ms 0+
25O 8 17 25.02946 (28) # <50 ns (3/2 +) #
26O 8 18 26.03834 (28) # <40 ns 0+
27O 8 19 27.04826 (54) # <260 ns 3/2 + #
28O 8 20 28.05781 (64) # <100 ns 0+

Distribution
Oxygen the total mass of the earth's crust is 48.6% in the most abundant element in the earth's crust, which is substantially in the form of oxides present in the earth's crust. Each kilogram of seawater dissolving 2.8 mg of oxygen, and the oxygen in the water almost reached 88%. For the purposes of the whole earth, oxygen content of 15.2%. Whether human, animal or plant, they have similar biological cells, of which accounted for 65% elemental oxygen mass.
Type of poisoning
"Oxygen poisoning" generally occurs in patients with long-term oxygen in. Although adequate oxygen metabolism can improve the ability of human cells, enhance immunity, but long-term inhalation of high concentrations of oxygen can also reduce the occurrence of pulmonary surfactant, causing alveolar exudate, pulmonary edema, dizziness, paleness, rapid heartbeat and many other issues. More seriously, oxygen toxicity was not easy to be perceived, often before clinical symptoms occur within 2-3 days, then re often easily bungled rescue time. Some families often do not pay attention oxygen inhaled oxygen concentration and time, that the higher the oxygen concentration, the better, oxygen as long as possible. This increases the risk of oxygen toxicity.
Pulmonary oxygen toxicity
1, symptoms:
Similar bronchial pneumonia. Their performance and the normal development process: tracheal irritation initially similar upper respiratory tract infection, such as chest discomfort (stinging or burning sensation) with mild dry cough, and slowly increase; then after chest pain, and the pain gradually along bronchial tree spread to the entire chest, inspiratory staggering; pain gradually increased, uncontrollable coughing appear; also accompanied by shortness of breath at rest. In the early stages of the onset of symptoms of the end of the exposure, chest pain and coughing can be alleviated within a few hours.
2, the signs:
Lung auscultation, often there is no significant positive signs; the late severe symptoms can appear scattered crackles or bronchial
Breath sounds. The higher the oxygen pressure, the shorter the incubation period of these signs and symptoms.
3, laboratory tests:
⑴ X-ray examination: lung markings can be found, or lung patchy shadows.
⑵ spirometry: FVC decrease pulmonary oxygen toxicity is the most sensitive indicators.
Convulsions oxygen toxicity: the performance of oxygen toxicity seizures, can be divided into four consecutive phases:
⑴ incubation period: the length of the incubation period and the suction pressure of oxygen gas was negatively correlated, but not linear. Oxygen pressure, increased latency.
⑵ prodromal period: manifestations include: ① facial muscle twitching, the most common, mainly for the facial muscles and lips quiver; ② autonomic symptoms: sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, palpitations and pale and so on; ③ paresthesia: may have reduced vision, visual hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, phantom smell, bad breath and numb extremities; ④ mood disorders: irritability, anxiety or euphoria, etc; ⑤ precursor may be the end of extreme fatigue and breathing difficulties, a few cases there may collapse occurred. Timely detection of prodromal symptoms and to take immediate measures from the hyperbaric oxygen environment, to prevent oxygen seizures occur is very important. It should be noted that the specific patients are often only one or several of prodromal symptoms, sometimes even no obvious direct prodromal symptoms convulsions.
⑶ seizure period: prodromal period, soon convulsions. ① grand mal seizures or generalized tonic-clonic spasm-like, each lasting for about 2 min; ② in person, before the onset of sometimes uttered a short scream, loss of consciousness, sometimes accompanied by incontinence; ③ EEG changes : appear before the convulsions, increased frequency and voltage increase, and appear spiny wave-spindle (spindle-like waves).
⑷ coma: If, after the occurrence of seizures is still in the high-oxygen environment, that is, into coma. Animal experiments showed unconscious, occasionally locally slight convulsions, dyspnea gradually worsened, and then continue the faint breathing until it stops. Even after the seizure staff promptly from hyperbaric oxygen environment, but also blurred some time consciousness or mental and behavioral disorders, usually in 1 ~ 2h can be restored after a few hours to sleep. Without leaving obvious sequelae.
Pathogenesis
Not yet fully understood. Mainly in the following views:
⑴ direct toxic effects of hyperbaric oxygen on tissues and organs. More specifically, when we can not find the exact mechanism of injury, the provisionally considered to be direct toxic effects of oxygen.
⑵ biofilm impaired oxygen under high pressure conditions, the alveolar wall membrane secretory cells (type Ⅱ cells) within the lamellar body damage, synthesis, secretion and function of pulmonary surfactant is decreased, causing the lung surface tension increases, resulting in atelectasis.
⑶ related enzyme inhibition hyperbaric oxygen inhibited the activity of many enzymes such as glutamate decarboxylase and Na + -K + -ATP enzyme.
⑷ role of oxygen free radicals of oxygen free radicals are a class of oxygen-containing group having a highly chemically reactive. Normally, the body of oxygen free radicals generated primarily cleared by the body's antioxidant defense system. The body is exposed to oxygen under high pressure, excessive oxygen free radicals, and much higher than the capacity of the antioxidant defense system cleared. The main oxygen free radicals cause damage to the following two aspects: 1. Biofilm lipid peroxidation; 2 destroy the protein polypeptide chain: enzymes are proteins whose activity is affected. Free radical theory can explain many phenomena of oxygen toxicity at the molecular level.
⑸ nerve - humoral factors
⑹ action of certain peptides in the brain, such as b-endorphin and arginine vasopressin.
Causes
Simply put, that causes excessive inhalation of oxygen, and the pressure and duration of hyperbaric oxygen are the two main factors that cause oxygen toxicity.
1 diving breathing high partial pressure of oxygen
When using oxygen ⑴ light diving apparatus diving more than the prescribed depth
⑵ When using ventilated air diving apparatus diving, underwater stay too long
⑶ greater depth when diving with helium were loaded with oxygen, if not required to formulate the appropriate oxygen concentration gas mixture, smoked or mistakenly shallower depths in the use of gas.
2 cabin pressure hyperbaric oxygen breathing: more than a predetermined pressure - time limit.
Factors
⑴ individual differences and individual differences Day: Sensitivity differences in different individuals of a high concentration of oxygen is very high. Even the same individual, the oxygen tolerance in different states of great volatility.
⑵ CO2: CO2 gas inhalation increased oxygen concentrations promote convulsions.
⑶ labor intensity: promote increased labor intensity of oxygen toxicity.
⑷ temperature: High temperatures can reduce the body hyperbaric oxygen tolerance. Increase low temperature tolerance to some extent, but if it is too low to cause muscle tremors, energy consumption increases, the tolerance will be reduced.
⑸ spirit of factors: mood swings, stress, lack of sleep can reduce the body hyperbaric oxygen tolerance.
Occurred while diving oxygen poisoning treatment
⑴ quickly left the high-pressure environment: prodromal symptoms appear immediately when the water rises, it should be promptly sent divers into the water when the ambulance had seizures, but to control the rising speed (<10 m / min), in order to prevent lung barotrauma.
After ⑵ water treatment: removable harness, supine rest, keep quiet, keep warm, continue to observe the anti-sudden convulsions.
⑶ anticonvulsant therapy: drug seizures occur, you should choose a smaller impact on cardiopulmonary function drugs available 4% chloral hydrate enema 50ml, 2 h after subcutaneous injection of morphine, can be used repeatedly, no more than 4 times a day. It can also be intramuscular or intravenous injection of 0.2 ~ 0.3 g amobarbital. Oxygen is often accompanied by convulsions have a certain degree of lung damage, disable inhaled anesthetics.
Pressurized cabin oxygen toxicity of treatment
⑴ through the oxygen mask of the cabin, quickly removed the mask, breathing compressed air tanks, according to the conventional air pressure.
⑵ in pure oxygen tanks, first with compressed air ventilation to reduce cabin oxygen partial pressure, and then gradually reduced spacewalk.
When ⑶ seizures, should note the following:
① prevent falls hurt or bitten tongue, may be appropriate to use an antispasmodic when necessary.
② should be noted that patients with respiratory conditions, prone to throat spasms and convulsions breath, this time can not be reduced to prevent the closed glottis causing bruised lung. Only rhythmic breathing to be restored, after the airway, before the required decompression.
③ leave hyperbaric oxygen environment, there are seizures, anticonvulsant therapy.
Pulmonary oxygen toxicity, the light and return to normal after a few hours to restore the environment; severe, as the lungs monitoring perspective, a few days to restore.

 


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